Reduction of Inappropriate Antibiotic Use and Improved Outcomes by Implementation of an Algorithm-Based Clinical Guideline for Nonpurulent Skin and Soft Tissue Infections

John P. Haran, MD, PhDa,b,,'Correspondence information about the author MD, PhD John P. HaranMelissa Goulding, MSaMaureen Campion, PharmDcGail Scully, MDdArnav Chandra, BSaRebecca Goldberg, MSfAllyson Day, BSgEmily McLendon, MDaMelissa A. Clark, PhDe,h

Study objective

Clinicians currently do not reliably adhere to antibiotic treatment guidelines, resulting in unnecessary patient exposure to broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Our objective is to determine whether a treatment intervention for the management of nonpurulent skin and soft tissue infections increases clinician adherence and improves patient outcomes.

Methods

Between January 1 and December 31, 2017, patients presenting to 2 emergency departments (EDs) and who had received a diagnosis of a nonpurulent skin and soft tissue infection were enrolled and assigned to a pre- or postintervention cohort with a treatment intervention implemented on June 1. Primary outcomes were percentage of ED providers following the guidelines and percentage of patients admitted to the hospital. Secondary outcomes were patient self-reported treatment failure and hospital readmission.

Results

There were 1,360 patients, 665 in the preintervention and 695 in the postintervention cohorts. After algorithm implementation, guideline adherence increased (43.0% versus 55.1%; P<.001) and number of patients admitted to the hospital declined (36.5% versus 12.0%; P<.001). In addition, patients reported fewer treatment failures (26.8% versus 16.5%; P=.02) and fewer readmissions (22.3% versus 12.7%; P=.013). After multivariate adjustment, guideline adherence increased by 22% (adjusted relative risk [RR] 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10 to 1.37), whereas hospital admissions were reduced by 26% (adjusted RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.87). In addition, the risks of treatment failure and readmission were reduced by 46% (adjusted RR 0.64; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.97) and 45% (adjusted RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.34 to 0.87), respectively.

Conclusion

Among patients with a nonpurulent skin and soft tissue infection, implementing an easy-to-follow treatment algorithm can reduce unnecessary antibiotic exposure by increasing clinician guideline adherence while reducing patient treatment failure rates.

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